We see now pathologies that affect sight and hearing, provoking sensory deficits. Cataract is caused by aging, by a hardening of the crystalline (a sort of “lens” contained in the eye). Cataract does not provoke pain and it is not accompanied from inflammation. First symptoms consist in a light fogginess of the sight, in the vision of dark stains that extend from the periphery towards the centre of the crystalline, or of points, that render all the crystalline opaque. Another symptom consists in double or multiple perception of a single object. Other symptom is the progressive reduction of the sight, so that the objects or persons are perceived like behind a frosted glass. In the serious cases it can cause blindness. The more effective therapy is surgical.

Age related macular degeneration is a pathology that regards the central part of the retina. It is a progressive disease that constitutes the greater cause of blindness in the patients with more than 60 years of age. The disease causes a distorted and dimming vision until to a reduction of the central vision. The evolution of this pathology is very slow.

It is necessary to remember that an old person with visual deficit has:

Problems with  sense of space without precise points of reference;

Uncertainties in the deambulation in coincidence with architectonic barriers insufficiently marked;

Tendency to movements and autonomy reduction in absence of stimuli raising the vital interests;

Mistrust and touchiness character, emphasized by the solitude and the depression, if not supported by a sufficiently gaily temperament and incline to the optimism;

Greater risk of marginalization for those who live alone, if they are not enough integrated in their social context and if they do not decide the adapt accompaniment services;

For the old hypo-seeing, general tendency to use little and badly the residual visual for the superimposition of the psychological apprehensions to lose the sight;

Insufficient use, if not encouraged, of the stick (the rigid one has to be preferred) for guideline and support.

In the care job it will be necessary to keep in mind such aspects and to support the material assistance with helps that favor the interpersonal relations, enforce the self – esteem, and keep alive the social relations. 

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